Cardiometabolic Risks in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Mini-Review
Diabetes is one of the most common medical problems encountered in about 3.8% - 41% of pregnancies across the various parts of India. It contributes to maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Insulin resistance and β – cell dysfunction are the characteristics of GDM. Women with GDM had many immediate adverse fetomaternal and neonatal outcomes. In addition to the immediate adverse outcomes, women with GDM also had long-term complications such as dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease in later life. Current evidence suggests that GDM is highly associated with cardiometabolic risks (CMR) during gestation and in post-gestational period. Though the mechanism behind the pathogenesis of CMR in GDM is multifactorial, placental hormones, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a significant role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular risks in pregnant women with GDM.