International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> EManuscript Technologies en-US International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology 2348-8832 Sympathovagal Imbalance in Early Part of Pregnancy Could be a Biological Marker of Gestational Hypertension <p style="text-align: justify;">Gestational hypertension (GH) is defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP) of at least 140 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg recorded on at least two occasions at least 6 hr apart after the 20th week of gestation in women known to be normotensive before pregnancy.<sup>[1]</sup> It is one among the various categories of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) which also includes chronic hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Hypertension is one of the most common medical problem encountered in 15% of pregnancies and it contributes to 12% of maternal morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries of South-East Asia.<sup>[1]</sup> A study in India reported the prevalence of hypertensive disorders in which GH (47.4%), was the most common disorder followed by pre-eclampsia (32.6%), pre-eclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension (11.8%) and chronic hypertension (8.2%).<sup>[2]&nbsp; </sup><strong>Read more...</strong></p> Gopal Krushna Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 34 35 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.9 The Efficacy of Yoga Nidra on Stress, Anxiety, and Aggression Levels in School-Going Children <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Stress, anxiety, and aggression are very common in school-going children. It is manageable through lifestyle modifications. This trial evaluated the efficacy of Yoga Nidra on stress, anxiety, and aggression levels in school-going children. <strong>Methods: </strong>40 students participated in this trial. They were divided into two groups viz. control group (n=20) and the experimental group (n = 20). For four weeks, the experimental group engaged in daily Yoga Nidra practice for 25 min. The Control group didn’t change their lifestyle. Questionnaire methods were used to assess stress, anxiety, and aggression. One-way ANOVA made all intergroup comparisons. A comparison of data before and after Yogic practice in each group was made using a t-test. <strong>Results: </strong>Stress, anxiety, and aggression levels decreased significantly in the experimental or Yoga Nidra group. The Control group showed no significant difference. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results obtained from the data analysis of the 30-day Yoga Nidra intervention show that the intervention helps reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Aggression Levels in School-Going Children.</p> Chanchal Vijay Rameswar Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 36 39 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.10 Effects of Wormwood Essential Oil on Rat with Alzheimer’s Disease <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>The purpose of the present study is to provide a basis for the use of Wormwood essential Oil as a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). <strong>Methods: </strong>The rat’s model of AD induced by Ibotenic (IBO) acid and the effect of wormwood oil was evaluated through the measurement of cognitive functions using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) and oxidative stress and histomorphometric analyze in hippocampus tissue. <strong>Results:</strong> In rat treated with wormwood oil (50 mg/kg) cognitive functions were significantly enhanced and were nearly returned to normal in the treated group. The levels of MDA in hippocampus tissue were significantly elevated, while antioxidant markers (CAT, GSH, and SOD) were reduced in model group compared to controls. The administration of wormwood oil improved all these parameters. In particular, oil led to increase pyramidal neuron counts at CA1 and CA3 compared with model. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our data provide that wormwood essential oil may be useful for management and treatment of AD.</p> Solhwa Kim Kwangthae Kim Cholho Sin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 40 44 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.11 Effects of Leek Extract on Rats with Hyperlipidemia <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of leek extract on hyperlipidaemia in rats. <strong>Methods</strong>: Rats were fed a modified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid to induce hyperlipidaemia as previously described. Leek extracts were administrated at daily doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 g/kg for 8 weeks. <strong>Results: </strong>There were significantly increased in all tested parameters including body weight, liver weight index and liver lipid profile in hyperlipidemic model rats compared to control rats. However, the administration of leek extracts in dose-dependently led to reduction these parameters compared to hyperlipidemic model rats. During the experiment, leek extract with 100mg/kg did not exert antihyperlipidaemic effect. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our data provide that leek extract may be useful for management of hyperlipidemia.</p> Hyongyong Kim Rihyang Paek Hyojin Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 45 48 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.12 Toxicity and Pharmacological Effect of Paeogly Antispastic Capsule for Gastrocnemius Cramps: Fundamental Study <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: We have conducted a fundamental study to make a prescription with paeoniflorin (main component of <em>Paeonia albiflora </em>Palls) which has sedation effect, antispastic effect, analgesic effect, dilate peripheral vessels, and glycyrrhizin (main component of <em>Glycyrrhiza uralensis</em> Fisch) which has analgesic effect, sedation effect, anti-inflammatory effect and to make capsule in order to treat gastrocnemius cramps. Gastrocnemius cramps which are also called nocturnal gastrocnemius cramps or sleep-related gastrocnemius cramps produce pain and disrupt sleep. Most of them can be idiopathic. Vitamin B complex, Vitamin E, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, verapamil, gabapentin, carisoprodol, orphenadrine and other medications are used for gastrocnemius cramps but they are limited in use due to weak evidence for their efficacy and several side effects. <strong>Methods</strong>: Female white rats with 20-25 g in body weight and female wistar rats with 100-120 g in body weight were used as experimental animals and Paeogly antispastic capsule (0.3 g per capsule) which consists of 0.15 g extract powder from <em>Paeonia albiflora</em> Palls and 0.1 g extract powder from <em>Glycyrrhiza uralensis</em> Fisch in distilled water was used as drugs. To verify the toxicity of Paeogly antispastic capsules, acute toxicity experiment was done with maximum injection method and in subacute toxicity experiment, the drug was administrated with the dose of 160 mg/kg/d for 60 days using sonde, measuring the body weight every 30 days then peripheral blood test and blood biochemistry test, measuring organ index of parenchymal organs at 60<sup>th</sup> day after administration. To verify the pharmacological effect of the Paeogly antispastic capsules, cramp models were made with subcutaneous injection of strychnine nitrate 0.06 mg/100g, diabetic models were made with injection of 5% alloxan in physiological saline (5 mg/100g). Study group was given Paeogly antispastic capsules (0.3 g) in 6 mL of distilled water 200 mg/kg daily for 3 days using sonde and the control group was given only distilled water. Finally, we did electromyogram in gastrocnemius an hour after administration. <strong>Results: </strong>The maximum injection amount of Paeogly antispastic capsules is 800 mg/kg and no abnormal findings were found in body weight, peripheral blood test, biochemical test and organ index during subacute toxicity experiment. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Paeogly antispastic capsules fastened the nerve conduction velocity of gastrocnemius in cramp models and diabetic model white rats, shortened the inertia time of M wave.</p> Yong-Chol Hong Son-Mi Kim Chol-Ho Song Won-Ho Pak I-Nam Sin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 49 52 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.13 Effects of Goji Berries Extract on Acute Anterior Uveitis in Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The purpose of the present study is to provide a basis for the use of Goji berries as a therapeutic agent for acute uveitis. <strong>Methods: </strong>The rat’s model of acute uveitis was induced by endotoxin as previously described and the effect of Goji Berries Extract (GBE) was evaluated through the measurement of clinical inflammatory scores, histological changes in anterior chamber tissues and inflammatory status in the aqueous humor. <strong>Results: </strong>In rats treated with GBE (400 mg/kg, IP), clinical inflammatory score at 24 hr after LPS injection was significantly reduced. Histological changes in anterior chamber tissues were significantly decreased in GBE treatment group, while in DXM treatment group nearly returned to normal. The number of infiltrating cells and the levels of protein leakage in aqueous humor were significantly elevated in EIU model group, but the administration of GBE improved these parameters. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our results suggest that GBE used in the present study has potential for the treatment of AAU.</p> Unbyol Ri Hyangsun Kim Solgyong Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 53 56 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.14 Comparison between Two Severity Classifications in Patients with Acute Cholecystitis <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Assessment severity helps clinicians to guide appropriate treatment and minimumize adverse outcome. The objective of our study was to comparison between TG13 severity system and EGS grade system for predicting clinical outcomes in acute cholecystitis. <strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective single-center study which enrolled patients who were admitted to Pyongsong Medical University Hospital between February 2020 and October 2021. Tokyo 2013 (TG 13) severity classification and Emergency General Surgery (EGS) severity systems were validated. Clinical outcomes were mortality, postoperative complication, need for emergency surgery and hospital stay. Predictive accuracies were evaluated using Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC). <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 164 patients were included in the analysis (mean age of 57.4 years; 52.4% males). On the basis of EGS grade, 132 patients (80.5%), 22 patients (13.5%), 2 patients (1.2%), 4 patients (2.4%) and 4 patients (2.4%) were determined to have I, II, III, IV and V. Using TG13 grade, 113 patients (68.9%) were categorized as mild, 46 patients (28.0%) as moderate, and 5 patients (3.1%) as severe. In general, higher grades of severity were signifi cantly associated with worse clinical outcomes for all classification systems and this was more precise in TG 13 severity system. EGS severity classification was more superior to TG 13 grade system for predicting mortality (AUC 0.866 vs. 0.812, P &lt;0.001), post-operative complication (AUC 0.848 vs. 0.799, P &lt; 0.001) and need for surgery (AUC 0.798 vs. 0.734, P &lt; 0.001). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>EGS severity classification was more superior to TG 13 grade system for predicting clinical outcomes.</p> Mun Jong Hyon Kim Hye Song Rim Song Il ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 57 62 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.15 Effort Rupture of Esophagus: One Case <p style="text-align: justify;">Effort rupture of the esophagus (Boerhaave's syndrome) is a spontaneous perforation of the esophagus that is most commonly results from a sudden increase in intra-esophageal pressure combined with negative intra-thoracic pressure caused by several causes. The patient was a 42 years old man with a major complaint of epigastric pain and fever after drinking 500 mL of 25% alcohol. An emergency laparotomy was performed under the diagnosis of gastric perforation, but the abdomen was immediately closed because of the absence of abnormalities. A fever of 38.6ºC and a dyspnea was found after 18 hr of lapse, a pleural drainage tube was performed after the test puncture, which showed the black-brown sticking pus. This patient was resuscitated by conservative treatment such as infusion, blood transfusion, and gastrostomy.</p> Un Song Hyon-Jong Kim Yong-Jin Ryu Ki-Yong Ri Song-Rim Pak Kyong-Su O ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 63 64 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.16 News and Views <p style="text-align: justify;">Hypertension is one of the common medical problems encountered in 10% of all pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy include pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, chronic hypertension and gestational hypertension.<sup>[1] </sup>Of these disorders, Pre-Eclampsia (PE) accounts for 70% of the hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with a major negative impact on pregnancy outcome as well as maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Though anti-hypertensive drugs are used in the management of pregnancy-induced hypertension, termination of pregnancy alone offers a complete cure.<sup>[2]</sup> In developing countries, like India the incidence of preeclampsia ranges from 1.8% to 16.7% which is 7 times higher than the worldwide incidence which is 3% to 8%.<sup>[3] </sup>Poor knowledge about the medical care available for pregnant women and poverty have been attributed to the high incidence of the disease.<sup>[4]</sup> Preeclampsia is one of the important health problems in pregnant women with potential fetal complications such as growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight and death.<sup>[5]</sup> Maternal complications such as HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets) syndrome, cerebral edema accompanied by seizures, renal failure and death.<sup>[6] </sup>Hence optimizing healthcare for expectant mothers is crucial for achieving sustainable development goals and improving the prevention and treatment of these dangerous hypertensive disorders.&nbsp; <strong>Read more...</strong></p> Ravisankar T ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 10 2 65 66 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.2.17