International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> EManuscript Technologies en-US International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology 2348-8832 Retrograde Inflammation Contributes to Psychological Stress and Depression in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus <p>Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during the present pregnancy at 24-28 weeks of gestation.[1] In the recent past, there is an increased incidence of diabetes during pregnancy with almost 21 million births (16.2%) affected due to hyperglycemia. Prevalence of GDM in India is 18.9%, ranging between 3.8% to 41% in various parts of the country.[2] The major maternal and neonatal adverse effects of GDM include increased risk of preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia, caesarean section delivery, development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) post-delivery, fetal macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, neonatal respiratory distress, and childhood obesity and insulin resistance, followed by impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM later in life.&nbsp;<strong>Read More...</strong></p> Gopal Krushna Pal Manoharan Renugasundari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 10 3 67 68 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.18 Effects of Ligustrazine on Ischemic Stroke by Photochemical Occlusion of Middle Cerebral Artery in Rat <p><strong>Background </strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Aim</strong><strong>: </strong>Stroke is a life-threatening disease leading to long-term disability in stroke survivors. In most acute ischemic strokes, the underlying cause is a thrombotic or embolic vascular occlusion. Therefore, one strategy for treating stroke is to restore blood flow within the ischemic area with a thrombolytic agent. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Ligustrazine on ischemic stroke induced by photochemical reaction in rat.&nbsp;<strong>Methods: </strong>Ischemic stroke model in rats was induced by the thrombotic occlusion of MCA based on the photochemical reaction between rose Bengal and green light, which causes endothelial injury followed by platelet activation and thrombus formation at the site of the photochemical reaction. &nbsp;Ligustrazine were injected i.v. 15 min (10 ml/kg) before rose Bengal injection and 2 hr (10 ml/kg) after injection of the dye. Neurological deficit, occlusive time, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B<sub>2 </sub>and bleeding time were measured by conventional methods.&nbsp;<strong>Results: </strong>Ligustrazine decreased the neurological deficit about 24h after injection of rose Bengal, prolonged the occlusive time in middle cerebral artery and inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation at 4hr after injection of dye.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our results suggest that Ligustrazine&nbsp;used in the present study has potential effect on ischemic stroke induced by photochemical reaction.&nbsp;</p> Songjin Jang Hongil Kim Yongruyl Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 10 3 69 72 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.19 Efficacy of Combining Radiotherapy and/or Chemotherapy with Regional Hyperthermia on Advanced Cervical Cancer <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Cervical cancer is the seventh most frequent cancer worldwide but more than 80% of cases occur in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the results of combining radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy with regional hyperthermia on advanced cervical cancer (FIGO ⅢA~ⅢB). <strong>Methods:</strong> The study used new medical instrument was the first step of demonstrating the curative value against cervical cancer in DPR Korea. The medical instrument has been named as Hyperthermia instrument-NAMSUN -413 based on dielectric heating principle. <strong>Results: </strong>After Hyperthermia (HT group) and irradiation (TRT group) alone, 0% and 2.3% of patients showed complete response (CR) respectively, but in thermochemotherapy (HT+CT group) and thermoradiotherapy (HT+TRT group) CR rate increased to 23.5% and 25.0% respectively. HT+CT and HT+TRT during the treatment resulted in the acceptable side effects due to cisplatin or irradiation. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>As a result of our data, hyperthermia, as an adjuvant with radiation and chemotherapy can be used to treat the advanced cervical cancer.</p> Changyun Kang Songchan Han Yongsun Yun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 10 3 73 76 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.20 Effect of Extract of Rhubarb Root on Secondary Brain Injury in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> To investigate the effects of Extract (Ext) of Rhubarb Root on secondary brain injury after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, TBI group, and TBI+Ext group (n=15 per group). Rat TBI model was made by using the modified Feeney’s method. In TBI+ Ext group, Ext was administered orally at a dosage of 500 mg/kg after TBI once a day for 5 days. On the 5th day after TBI, motor function and brain water content were evaluated in each group. As oxidative stress indices in brain tissue, MDA level, SOD and CAT activities were assayed. <strong>Results:</strong> Beam walking performance impairment and brain edema were significantly reduced in TBI+Ext group compared with TBI group; meanwhile, level of MDA significantly were decreased and activities of SOD and CAT significantly were increased in brain tissue. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The extract of Rhubarb Root can reduce secondary brain injury and improve outcomes of the oxidative stress in injured brain following TBI.</p> Wonjin Yang Ungyong Pak Hyok Ri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 10 3 77 80 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.21 Changes of Cell-Free DNA Level in the Plasma of Breast Cancer Patients during Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Preoperative chemotherapy is increasingly given to shrink breast tumors prior to surgery. Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is elevated in cancer patients and decreases in response to effective treatments. Thus, cfDNA is considered as potential tumor marker for monitoring chemotherapy. <strong>Methods:</strong> In the present study, we investigated whether the plasma DNA concentrations in patients with breast cancer are altered during the course of CMF, CAF neoadjuvant chemotherapy. <strong>Results: </strong>In CR, PR to chemotherapy patients, the cfDNA concentration decreases from week 1 of first cycle of treatment. In contrast, it increases after 2 weeks in patients who show NC, PD, without reference to chemotherapy method. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study shows the possibility of using cfDNA changes as a useful biomarker with other molecular changes for personalized medicine of breast cancer.</p> Song Hak Kim Un Rim Sim Myong Nam Kim Ryong Gil Ri Hui Myong Pak Chong Won Ri Sung Hui Kim Su Hui Jang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 10 3 81 86 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.22 Bypass Operation by Single-Style Esophageal Plasty Using Small Intestines for Patients with End-Stage Esophageal Cancer which was Impossible to be Cured Radically <p>The purpose of this study is to figure out the possibility of the bypass operation in esophageal cancer which is impossible to be cured radically and its effect on the survival rate and quality of life of the patients. In recent years, the incidence of the esophageal cancer has been increasing, thus there are many problems occurred in keeping the QOL. Especially gastrostomosis is being done in order to improve dysphagia in esophageal cancer patients who missed the optimal operation time but the patients are suffering themselves due to the psychological burden about the gastrostoma and mental factors to miss the time and even some of them are requiring the operation in those situations. We studied on three patients diagnosed as the esophageal cancer (impossible to be cured radically) from March, 2021 to March, 2022. All the patients were males and the average age was 53.3. All of them had end-stage esophageal cancer and among them, two were T3 N2 M0 and the other one was T3 N2 M1 . We concluded the radical cure by the esophagotomy was impossible and performed bypass operation (single-style esophageal plasty using small intestine). On discharge, we evaluated the satisfactory of the patients about the operation, and postoperative survival duration, and the quality of life by WHOQOL-100. After operation, the patients’ QoL has been improved and the survival duration has been elongated from six months in the past to 12.7 months. Esophageal bypass operation by single-style esophageal plasty is an effective treatment to keep the patients’ QoL, who has esophageal cancer impossible to be incised and increase the survival duration.</p> Gi Yong Ri Hyon Jong Kim Un Jong Sung Hyo Il Song Ryong Un Kim Sung Ho Kim Il Su Jo Chol Ho Hyon Sung Rim Pak Jung Hyok Jo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 10 3 87 89 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.23 NLR and vaccine immunity Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio an Indicator of Hepatitis B Vaccine Response in Haemodialysis Patients <p>Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is a new, cheap and sensitive and predictable test in many diseases especially if it be high but the lower level is also important. This study tries to show importance of NLR and immunity level following hepatitis B vaccination. 100 cases with ESRD received last dose of hepatitis b vaccine and their Complete blood count and NLR was recorded, their immunity level were assayed after six months, the relation of immunity response and NLR were analysed, NLR &gt;3.58 is high and &lt;0.8 is low. Data processed in SPSS 19 by Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used and p&lt;0.05 was significant. 100 cases entered to study aged (year) between 27 and 86, mean±SD 62±14 years, NLR median (Minimum, Maximum) was 2.5 (0.56, 8.8), mean±SD of NLR was 2.7± 1.3, low NLR was seen in 4% and high in 16% of cases, there is not any relation between high NLR &gt;3.58 and antibody response (titer above 10 IU/L) X2 (1,93) p 0.7, there is strong relation between Low NLR&lt;0.8 and non-response to antibody X2 (1,80) p 0.03, likelihood ratio:6.9. Low NLR increases the risk of non-response to hepatitis B vaccination the lowest cut off level is less than 0.8 in our study. It is warranted to retest this theory on very high NLR and larger sample with regard that it was the first study in this field.</p> Majid Malaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 10 3 90 91 Efficacy and Challenges in Usage of Gut Microbiome in Management of Hypertension <p>Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and leads to target organ damage including myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and renal disease. Around 1.5 billion people worldwide have hypertension, and it is estimated that it causes about 8 million deaths per year. Although there are several drugs available to lower Blood Pressure (BP), a large proportion of treated patients do not reach the BP targets recommended by current guidelines.[1] Non-pharmacological interventions to prevent and treat hypertension are lifestyle modifications, such as increased physical activity, yoga/pranayama, reduced salt and alcohol intake, quitting smoking, weight loss, and a healthy diet with high fiber content. Additionally, gut microbiome, which is quite diverse, also has potential influence on blood pressure.<strong>Read</strong><strong> More...</strong></p> Balaji Pishey Ashwathnarayan Rao Smitha Ranoji Rao Varne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 10 3 92 93 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.25 Revolutionizing Sleep Medicine: Integrating Clinical and Interventional Physiology for Enhanced Patient Care <p>In a groundbreaking development in the field of sleep medicine, clinical and interventional physiology are spearheading a transformative shift towards a more nuanced understanding and effective management of sleep disorders.[1] This review, conducted in accordance with PubMed standards, delves into recent advancements, offering a glimpse into the future of sleep care. Clinical physiology has emerged as a cornerstone in deciphering the intricate mechanisms that govern sleep. Leading the charge is a study featured in the esteemed Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, investigating the role of circadian rhythms in sleep regulation.[2] The disruption of these natural rhythms, often influenced by contemporary lifestyles, has been identified as a contributing factor to the growing prevalence of sleep disorders. By illuminating the intricate interplay between circadian rhythms and sleep, this research sets the stage for targeted interventions to restore and optimize sleep-wake cycles.<strong>Read</strong><strong> More...</strong></p> Ganashree Chitradurga Palaiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 10 3 94 95 10.5530/ijcep.2023.10.3.26