https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/issue/feed International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology 2022-06-27T07:40:33+00:00 IJCEP Editorial Office editor@ijcep.org Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/660 Heart Rate Variability Analysis as a Patient Investigation Won’t Be an Ideal Test for Assessing Autonomic Dysfunctions 2022-05-28T08:08:37+00:00 Gopal Krushna Pal drgkpal@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Autonomic dysfunctions have been associated with many clinical disorders. Dysregulation of autonomic functions is reported to be involved in etiopathogenesis of cardio-metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases and so on. Therefore, recently autonomic function tests (AFTs) have become part of routine patient investigations in medical practice. Standard autonomic assessments include conventional AFTs, spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). Recently, HRV analysis has become a more popular test in investigating autonomic disorders. Nevertheless, an investigator should be aware of the limitations of HRV analysis, especially that of shortterm HRV, especially when it is done as a single investigation of the AFT. Therefore, in this editorial we analyse the merits and demerits of spectral analysis of HRV, used for patients’ investigations in clinical practice.</p> 2022-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/632 Efficacy of Yoga in Coping with Mental Health Issues due to COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review 2022-05-28T09:38:24+00:00 Saumya Subramanian saumya.ssiar@gmail.com Divya Kanchibhotla divya.kanchibhotla@artofliving.org Shivarama Varambally drvarambally@gmail.com Kaviraja Udupa kaviudupa@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">The world was shocked with the sudden outbreak of a virus in the early 2020 destroying lives and livelihoods of millions across the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic with its epicentre in Wuhan, China spread across the globe like a fire. To restrict the further spread of the virus, nations around the world went into complete lockdown restraining people from any movements outside their homes. The government imposition saved people from the dangerous virus but had a crucial impact over many people’s livelihood, employment and thus creating mental health problems. Many non-governmental as well as non-profitable organizations have tried their best to help humanity in the best possible ways to keep them engaged and also support their livelihoods. However, the need of the hour is to equip oneself with a good mental and physical health in these dark hours. Ancient Indian practices like yoga and meditation are proven tools to cope with misery, fear and anxiety during such times of despair. Their benefits encompass both physical health such as improving immune functions and activating parasympathetic activity, and mental health benefits like overcoming anxiety, depression and insomnia. This review highlights the benefits of yoga practices in combating the mental health issues faced by individuals due to lockdown, loss of near or dear ones and unemployment and highlights its role in improving wellness during the pandemic.</p> 2022-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/662 Detection and Management of COVID-19 by Image Processing: A Scientometric Assessment of Global Publications 2022-05-28T07:35:41+00:00 BM Gupta bmgupta1@gmail.com Mallikarjun M Kappi bmgupta1@gmail.com KK Mueen Ahmed bmgupta1@gmail.com Tarun Bala bmgupta1@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Diagnosis of the Covid-19 disease is important to provide the best care to patients and reduce their burden in the health care system. Of late artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches have been playing an important role in image processing for the diagnosis of Covid-19. The aim of this study is to examine the global literature on “Detection and Management of Covid-19 by Image Processing” during 2020- 21, using quantitative and qualitative methods and select bibliometric indicators. <strong>Methods</strong>: A systematic search strategy was developed and performed in Scopus database for “Detection and Management of Covid-19 by Image Processing” using keywords related to “Covid-19” and “Imaging” for identification of studies published up to 10 February 2022. <strong>Results:</strong> In all 2451 global articles were identified on this topic in Scopus database, which consisted of articles (62.55%), conference papers (15.46%) and reviews (8.36%). These together registered 11.77 citations per paper. The 19.95% (489) share of the global output received extra-mural funding support and registered 14.22 citations per paper. Only 2.12% (52) share of the global output are considered high-cited as they have received 100+ citations and registered 294.27 citations per paper. The 2451 global articles originated in 100 countries, with the participation of 1661 organizations and 11755 authors and published in 1088 journals and generated 9233 keyword plus and 3831 author keywords, Although USA (506 papers), China (412 papers) and India (362 papers) were the most productive countries, however, in terms of citation impact (citations per paper and relative citation index) China (27.02 and 2.30), Germany (26.23 and 2.23) and France (23.72 and 2.02) registered the highest citation impact. Although Harvard Medical School, USA (42 papers), Massachusetts General Hospital, USA (36 papers) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran contributed the highest publication productivity; however, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA (158.44 and 13.46), Sun Yat-Sen University, China (84.0 and 7.14) and Ministry of Education, China (71.78 and 6.10) registered the highest citation impact. Although A. Gholamrenzanezhad (USA) (14 papers), D. Shen (South Korea) (12 papers) and J. Liu (China)(11 papers) contributed the highest productivity, however A. Bernheim (USA) (235.83 and 20.04), N. Sverzellati (Italy)(135.86 and 11.54) and A. Gholamrenzanezhad (USA) (62.07 and 5.27) registered the highest citation impact. Although <em>Computers </em>in Biology and <em>Medicine</em> (38 papers), <em>Academic Radiology</em> (29 papers) and <em>Clinical Imaging </em>(28 papers) published the largest number of papers, however Radiology (153.09), Journal of Infection (105.75) and <em>Radiology Cardiothoracic</em> (64.94) registered the highest citation impact. The top three subjects contributing the largest share of global literature to this field were <em>Medicine</em> (57.36%), Computer Science (35.70%) and Engineering (21.95%). Besides Covid-19, the leading keywords were X-Ray (883), Computer-Assisted Tomography (836), Deep Learning (725), Diagnostic Imaging (692), Convolutional Neural Networks (464), Chest X-ray (398) and Diagnosis (325).<strong> Conclusion:</strong> Several artificial and machine learning models adopted by researchers, policy-makers and healthcare professionals to classify the images related to the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 were observed, which promised outcomes in terms of accuracy, cost, and detection speed. The analysis provide insights of the field, indicates the research trends, identifies the existing gaps and provides a perspective for future research. The need for active collaboration among countries, organizations and authors to improve research quality and impact was suggested.</p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/582 Ameliorative Effects of EUK-134, a Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Mimetic, in a Rat Model of D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Accelerated Aging 2022-05-28T09:38:24+00:00 KwangWon Kim kw.kim0708@ryongnamsan.edu.kp KwangSong Kim life1@ryongnamsan.edu.kp KyongOk Ri life3@ryongnamsan.edu.kp HyongGwan Ri life4@ryongnamsan.edu.kp ChungIl Yo ci.yo0415@ryongnamsan.edu.kp SonYong Ko sy.ko1117@ryongnamsan.edu.kp TokMan Hwang tm.hwang0720@ryongnamsan.edu.kp <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: EUK-134, a synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, is a salen-manganese complex that exhibits the catalytic actions of both superoxide dismutase and catalase, important antioxidant enzymes biosynthesized by cells. In the current study, we evaluated the protection effects of EUK-134 against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress and accelerated aging in rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> D-galactose was sub-cutaneously injected at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the back of rats once daily for 42 days and simultaneously EUK-134 was administered to the rats by intra-abdominal injection at a dose of 5 mg/kg once daily. As a positive control, donepezil was administered to the rats by oral feeding at a dose of 1 mg/ kg once daily. Following behavioral tests (eight-arm radial maze test and Morris water maze test), animals were sacrificed on day 42, and their brains were used for histopathological and biochemical assessments of oxidative stress. <strong>Results:</strong> We found that the administration of EUK-134 (5 mg/kg, i.a.) significantly reversed the spatial memory deficits, the brain weight loss, the reduced cerebral cortex thickness, the decreased pyramidal neuron density and the pyramidal layer in brain hippocampus, the decreased superoxide dismutase activity, the decreased catalase activity, the increased malondialdehyde level, the increased acetylcholine esterase activity and the decreased acetylcholine level in the brain hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of D-gal-induced aging rats, as did the administration of donepezil (1 mg/ kg, oral). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>These results indicated that EUK-134 possesses neuroprotective effects against D-galactose-induced senescence, probably due to its antioxidant enzyme activities and this shows the availability of EUK-134 in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.</p> 2022-05-28T06:46:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/644 Effect of Moringa Oleifera Consumption During Lactation And Early Post-weaning Period On Diet-Induced Programming of Obesity In The Offspring of Wistar mice. 2022-06-27T07:40:33+00:00 Okeke Adaobi Pearl celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Ani Celestine Okafor celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Nweke Maduka Luke celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Agbor Joseph Ikenna celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Okolo Kenneth Obinna celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Ndubuisi Nonso Richard celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Katchy Nkiru celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Chukwu John Aja O’Brien celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Okafor Oluchukwu Kizito celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Anyaeji Somke Pamela celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Obianuo Chineta Sussan celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Agu Francis Uchenna celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Abayomi David Mark celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng Iyare Edorisiagbon Eghosa celestine.ani@esut.edu.ng <p>The fact that sub-optimal environments <em>in utero </em>and early postnatally alter development and predispose to lifelong health problems has been proven by a litany of human epidemiological and animal laboratory studies .This study was designed to investigate whether or not maternal consumption of aqueous extract of <em>Moringa Oleifera</em>, during lactation will affect the metabolic consequences of litter-reduced and litter-expanded offspring later in life. Thirty-two pregnant Wistar rats were used for this study. These rats were divided into two groups at delivery with each consisting of 16 rats. In group 1, the litters were reduced to four litters per dam to simulate over-nutrition while in group 2, litters where increased to eight litters per dam to simulate mild under-nutrition of the offspring. Each group was subdivided into 4 subgroups consisting of 4 dams in each subgroup. A- served as control group and were administered water only while B, C, and D -dams were given 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. Offspring food and fluid intake from weaning to postnatal day 42, glucose tolerance test and lipid profile on postnatal day 42 were determined. Results showed that extract treatment significantly improved the lipid profile of both subgroups 1 and 2 offspring. In conclusion, the findings suggested that administration of aqueous leaf extract of <em>Moringa oleifera </em>during lactation had a growth promoting effect on the offspring and may also protect against lipid derangement in the offspring later in life.</p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/646 The Experimental Study on the Alterations of Hemodynamics and Mechanical Characteristics of Erythrocyte Membrane after Different Training 2022-05-28T09:38:25+00:00 Hyon-Suk Jon cioc10@ryongnamsan.edu.kp Yong-Gun Jo cioc11@ryongnamsan.edu.kp Gum-A Jo cioc12@ryongnamsan.edu.kp <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>The effect on erythrocyte membrane after different training and recovery, by evaluating relationship between the changes of mechanical characteristics of erythrocyte membrane and hemodynamic indices was assessed. <strong>Methods:</strong> The Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n=7). The rats were trained on treadmill for four weeks, six days per week except for control group that stayed sedentary. The effect of training on hematocrit and mechanical characteristics of the erythrocyte membrane (elasticity and interaction energy) by using dielectrical electrophoresis and the mathematical model were assessed. <strong>Results:</strong> Training for 3 weeks improved hematocrit and mechanical characteristics after recovery and elasticity and interaction energy in RBC membrane decreased transitorily at different levels after high intensity training. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The effect of training in RBC mechanical characteristics is that changes of RBC membrane protein after high-intensity training cause the changes in RBC membrane structure and hence changes hemodynamics.</p> 2022-05-28T06:43:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/647 Weight Loss Associated with Reduced Visceral Fat Deposition Mediated via Tea-induced Alterations in Adiponectin and Insulin Activities 2022-05-28T09:38:25+00:00 Osah Martins Onwuka osahmartinz@gmail.com Chimaobim Luke Okechukwu osmartprimeinternational@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Weight decreasing potential of Lipton tea (product of <em>camellia sinensis</em>) was elucidated considering its impact on adiponectin and insulin concentration, which in turn influences the activities of adiponectin and insulin on their target cells. Hence this study was conducted forming tea nutritional basis for body weight and obesity control. <strong>Methods: </strong>Adiponectin, insulin, insulin resistance, free fatty acids, visceral fat depositions, body weight of male Wistar rats orally administered 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg of Lipton tea as well as 500 mg/kg of metformin (a potent drug for weight loss) in various groups were measured to ascertain certain weight decreasing mechanism of Lipton tea. <strong>Results:</strong> Following the administration of Lipton tea for 28 days, it increased adiponectin and decreased insulin and insulin resistance, free fatty acids, visceral fats and body weight in a dose dependent manner when compared to control. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Weight decreasing potential of Lipton tea via reduction in visceral fats is associated with increased adiponectin as well as decreased insulin concentration and decreased insulin resistance induced by the tea.</p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/649 Effects of Tobacco Consumption on Aerobic Fitness in Indian Adult Men 2022-05-28T09:38:25+00:00 Hasmukh Dahyabhai Shah drhasmukhshah0505@gmail.com Tejas T Prajapati ttprajapati@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Smokeless tobacco products like khaini, guthakha, betel quid, zarda are very commonly consumed by men and women of all age group followed by smoking of bidi, cigarette and hookah. Tobacco consumption is associated with poor cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal and overall health. Compromised physical fitness is seen in tobacco consumers and severity depends on type of product and duration of use. Aerobic or cardiorespiratory fitness is compromised in tobacco consumers. This study was planned to check the effect of tobacco consumption on aerobic fitness of Indian adult men of 18 to 60 years of age group. <strong>Methods: </strong>Participants for this study were recruited from Pramukhswami Medical College and its affiliated institutes after obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC). A total 74 adult men of 18-60 years’ age groups were enrolled for the present study after their voluntary consent. A total 24 participants who consume tobacco were placed in study group and a total 50 participants who were not consuming tobacco products were placed control group. All participants were apparently healthy at the time of Treadmill exercise stress test following Bruce protocol. Predicted VO2 max (PVO2 max) was calculated on the basis of total exercise time in minutes and seconds on Treadmill machine as per Bruce’s formula of calculating indirect maximal oxygen consumption. <strong>Results: </strong>PVO2 max values obtained by Treadmill exercise test following Bruce protocol in study group was 29.16 ± 8.88 ml/kg/min while control group was 36.47 ± 9.7. A statistically significant reduction in aerobic fitness was seen in study group as compared to control group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Aerobic fitness was significantly less in tobacco consumer Indian adult men of 18-60 years’ age group as compared to who do not consume tobacco.</p> 2022-05-28T07:06:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/669 Influence of Leptin on Severity of Acute Pancreatitis in Experimental Rat Model 2022-05-28T09:09:32+00:00 Chol Kang cioc3@ryongnamsan.edu.kp Hun Ryong cioc3@ryongnamsan.edu.kp Song-Chol Mun cioc3@ryongnamsan.edu.kp <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> In acute pancreatitis, hyperproduction of inflammatory mediators, including inflammatory cytokines, exacerbation of tissue injury due to microcirculatory disturbances, secondary activation of inflammatory cells in distant organs, and the cascade are the pathogenic basis of pancreatitis severity. Therefore, inhibition of pancreatic enzyme activity, blocking production, and preventing the activation of inflammatory cells is a practical way to prevent the development of severe acute pancreatitis and multiorgan failure. In our study, we sought to elucidate the effect of leptin on a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis. <strong>Methods: </strong>We prepared an acute pancreatitis model in rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20μg/kg of leptin and single injection of 0.1mL/100g of bile into a pancreatic duct extending from the duodenal papilla, measured survival, serum amylase activity, MPO activity in pancreatic tissue, SOD activity and MDA content, and observed the histopathological findings of pancreatic tissue. <strong>Results: </strong>Pre-administration of 20μg/kg leptin improved the survival of rats, decreased serum amylase activity, MPO activity in pancreatic tissue, increased MDA content, increased SOD activity, and improved the histopathological features of pancreatic tissue. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Leptin administration prevented the destruction of pancreatic cells and improved the antioxidant function in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.</p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/667 Correlation of Smoking Index with Mid-expiratory Flow Rate in Tobacco Smokers 2022-05-28T08:01:49+00:00 Vinoth Kumar coolshwets.arora@gmail.com Shweta Narang coolshwets.arora@gmail.com Mukesh Kumar coolshwets.arora@gmail.com Anand Agarwal coolshwets.arora@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Tobacco smoking was injurious to health, lung function and cause for many diseases has been known to mankind since decades. Access, peer pleasure, and various causes lead to addiction to tobacco smoking, and leads to a morbid lifestyle in later life. The aim of the study was to find out the harmful impact of the tobacco smoke on lung health by comparing the effect of the exposure of tobacco smoke on the mid-expiratory lung function indices (MEF75, MEF50, and MEF25). <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was carried out on 80 subjects between the age group of 18 - 45 years, and were divided into two groups with 40 subjects in tobacco smokers’ and 40 subjects as controls, and PFT indices were obtained before and after giving bronchodilator. Smoking index was calculated. <strong>Results:</strong> Predicted MEF25 and MEF75 were significantly decreased in tobacco smokers compared to control group. Predicted MEFR was significantly correlated with smoking index. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mid-Expiratory flow rate 25-75% was reduced in chronic smokers. The rate of reduction in MEFR 25-75% is proportional to the number of years the person been smoking.</p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/666 Gender Difference in the Link of MMP-9 Gene Polymorphism to Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase Level in the Determination of Lung Function in South Indian Population 2022-05-28T08:02:40+00:00 Jothi Marie Feula A saidhanalakshmi04@yahoo.com Dhanalakshmi Yerrabelli saidhanalakshmi04@yahoo.com Gopal Krushna Pal saidhanalakshmi04@yahoo.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Matrixins or matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) belong to metzincin superfamily and they are involved in many physiological functions like extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, bone growth and neuritic growth. Polymorphisms in MMP-9 gene will result in over expression of matrix metalloproteinases leading to excessive extracellular matrix degradation, which cannot be overcome by the anti-proteinases. One such polymorphism of MMP-9 is Gln279Arg. Degradation of pulmonary matrix can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies in the past have demonstrated female preponderance in incidence of COPD among smokers. <strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross sectional study conducted among healthy volunteers of age group 18 to 45 years. Pulmonary function tests of the subjects were recorded using computerised spirometry (SPIROLAB III). Frequency of Gln279Arg polymorphism was estimated by RT-PCR. Serum MMP-9 were estimated by Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay. <strong>Results: </strong>MMP-9 levels were found to be elevated in AA genotype group in females. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The females with AA genotype, have increased MMP-9 levels and so they may be more prone for COPD if they are exposed to the environmental risk factors.</p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/665 Dopamine Adjustment Difficulties in Special Pathophysiological Conditions 2022-05-28T08:03:13+00:00 Majid Malaki madjidmalaki@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Dopamine is a commonly used drug but its biology and cellular action is not well known, its bizarre actions in neonates back to different pattern of receptors on vascular and metabolic excretion rate especially in preterm babies.<sup>[1] </sup>Dopamine’s physiological action is dose dependent and give maximum diuresis and natriuresis at the dose of 2 micrograms/kg/min compared to 4 micrograms/ kg/min in neonates.<sup>[2] </sup>Such physiological properties back to immature norepinephrine stores that halt inotropic effects and longer elimination half time related to age that accentuate side effects of dopamine such as tachycardia.<sup>[3] </sup>Such side effects may accentuate in renal and hepatic deficiency because of lower clearance of dopamine and risk of toxicities in usual doses administration.<sup>[4] </sup>The other challenging factor for easy administration of dopamine is various inter individual pharmacokinetics property of dopamine especially in seriously ill patients.<sup>[5] </sup>Cochran study in small sample of selected asphyxiated neonate cases showed low dose dopamine as low as 2.5 micrograms/kg/min cannot decrease mortality and morbidity compared to placebo<sup>[6]</sup> and doses as low as 7 micrograms/kg/min make pulmonary vasoconstriction in critically ill case and infusion rate of 5 micrograms/kg/min cannot bring target hemodynamic indices in a great proportion of patients (9 of 25) inspite of tachycardia occurred in them as a side effect without increase in stroke volume and modest reduction in systemic vascular resistance.<sup>[7-8]</sup> Dopamine, efficacy, decrement during lactic acidosis is another challenge in spite of the plasma norepinephrine level was elevated dramatically during severe lactic acid acidosis in compared to normal acidosis.<sup>[9]</sup></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/664 News and Views 2022-05-28T08:03:45+00:00 Natarajan Kavitha drpravatipal@gmail.com Pravati Pal drpravatipal@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Anxiety is an integral part of life; almost everyone feels anxious now and then. Anxiety is a normal emotion when dealing with daily stressors and problems in life. But anxiety becomes a disorder when these persistent, excessive, and irrational emotions affect a person’s function. Psychological problems affect people of all ages, genders, cultures, and socioeconomic status.<sup>[1]</sup> In terms of years lived with disability (YLD), anxiety disorders were the sixth most common non-fatal cause of disability in both high- and low-income nations. The global prevalence of anxiety disorder ranged between 0.9% and 28.3%.<sup>[2]</sup> The prevalence of anxiety disorder in the Southeast Asian region was estimated to be 23%, and in India, it was estimated to be 3.0% contributing to 2.5% of total YLD. Anxiety disorders affect more women (4.6%) than men (2.6%) worldwide.<sup>[3]</sup></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Autonomic Nervous System is essential for mental and physical wellbeing. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis gets dysregulated by anxiety disorders, further weakening the autonomic nervous system. As part of an anxiety disorder, repetitive, inappropriate, or chronic autonomic reactions might increase the risk of atherosclerosis, hypertension, reduced heart rate variability (HRV), myocardial infarction, or even sudden cardiac death.[4] An unhealthy diet, decreased physical activity, and noncompliance with medications play a significant role in linking anxiety disorders to cardiac outcomes. Inflammation, ventricular dysfunction, platelet abnormalities, and autonomic dysfunction, among other physiological processes, may contribute to cardiovascular risk factors and death.<sup>[5]</sup></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijcep.org/index.php/ijcep/article/view/663 Instructions to the Authors 2022-05-28T07:21:50+00:00 G. K. Pal ijcep.editor@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP), a is a peer‑reviewed online and print journal with quarterly (March, June, September, December) publications on demand, compilation of issues published. The journal allows free access (Open Access) to its contents and permits authors to self‑archive final accepted version of the articles on any OAI‑compliant institutional / subject‑based repository. The journal does not charge for submission, processing or publication of manuscripts and even for color reproduction of photographs. <strong>Read more...</strong></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##