Impact of 12 Weeks Practice of Chandranadi Pranayama on Cardiac Autonomic Functions, Perceived Stress Score and Biochemical Parameters in Pre-hypertensive Young Adult Males- A Pilot Study
Background and Aim: Prehypertensive subjects pose significant future cardiovascular (CV) risk and lifestyle modification is considered as the first line of intervention for them. Few scientific trials revealed that regular composite yoga practices restore hemodynamic stability and reduces the CV risk in various diseases. However, there is a dearth of data on single yoga practice on cardiovascular health. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the impact of single slow pranayama (Chandranadi pranayama) practice for 12 weeks on cardiac autonomic functions, perceived stress score (PSS) and serum nitric oxide. Methods: The outcome parameters were recorded in thirty male prehypertensive subjects in the age group of 18 to 40 years at baseline and after intervention. They were divided into two groups, designated as control and pranayama group with fifteen subjects in each group. Pranayama group was given 27 rounds of chandranadi pranayama practice, an exclusive left nostril breathing followed by relaxation in shavasana for 10 min. The intervention was given for a period of twelve weeks. The parameters recorded were HR, BP, short-term heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), PSS and the cardiac autonomic reactivity tests which included heart rate response to standing (30:15 ratio), heart rate response to deep breathing (E:I ratio) and isometric handgrip test (ΔDBDisg). Further, 3ml of venous blood was collected for serum nitric oxide and uric acid assay. Results: A significant decrease in PSS, HR, SBP, DBP and LF/HF ratio of frequency domain indices of HRV and a significant increase in BRS, 30:15 ratio, E:I ratio and serum nitric oxide was noted in pranayama group at 12 weeks, when compared with their baseline data. No significant changes were observed in control group at 0 and 12 weeks. Conclusion: In our study, 12 weeks of exclusive left nostril breathing practice found to normalize BP and HR, improved BRS, restored sympathovagal balance and reduced perceived stress in prehypertensive subjects, which signifies decreased CV risk in them.