Practice of Alternate-nostril Breathing (Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama) Attenuates the Development of Hypertension and Cardiometabolic Dysfunctions During Pregnancy in Women Having Risk Factors for Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension
Background and Objective: The early prediction and prevention of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension (PIH), a common morbid disorder of pregnancy is unsatisfactory. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated the role of alternate-nostril breathing (anulomaviloma pranayama) on cardiometabolic risks and prevention of PIH in women having risks of PIIH. Methods: A total of 148 subjects consisting of study group (n=76): pregnant women having risk factors for PIH and practiced pranayama; and control group (n=72): pregnant women with risk factors for PIH, but did not practice pranayama were recruited from obstetric out-patient department. Spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV), autonomic Function Tests (AFTs), lipid profile, markers of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed in both groups in all the three trimesters. Results: It was observed that LF-HF ratio, the most sensitive indicator of sympathovagal imbalance was significantly reduced (P<0.001) and was linked to reduction in cardiometabolic risks and prediction of hypertension status in study group subjects following pranayama practice from their 1st trimester compared to control group subjects who did not practice pranayama. Conclusion: Practice of anuloma-viloma pranayama from 1st trimester improves sympathovagal balance, reduces cardiometabolic risks and prevents the development of PIH in later part of pregnancy in women having risk factors for PIH.