Effect of Gender on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk Profile in Young Adult Indian Population
Background and Aim: Gender difference has been documented in the cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality associated with obesity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the gender difference in CV and metabolic risk profile in apparently healthy young adult preobese and obese individuals. Methods: Obesity indices, body composition, blood pressure variability, and autonomic function test parameters were recorded in 270 individuals divided into control (male n = 43; female n = 47), preobese (male n = 48; female n = 42), and obese (male n = 44; female n = 46) groups. Homeostatic model assessment‑insulin resistance, atherogenic index, leptin, adiponectin, and inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were measured. The gender difference in CV and metabolic profile between the control, preobese, and obese groups was performed by one‑way ANOVA. Results: The abdominal adiposity was more in females as compared to males in both preobese and obese individuals. However, the increased CV risk (decreased heart rate variability) was observed in obese male compared to obese female individuals, which is supported by the increased inflammatory profile (increased interleukin‑6) in males compared to females. There was no much gender difference in most of the CV and metabolic parameters in control, preobese, and obese individuals. Conclusion: In the present study, we could not assess much difference in gender between the preobese and obese groups as CV risks and metabolic derangements have not been significantly established in these younger individuals who were in their early phases of preobesity and obesity.