Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Host Cell Entry Might Involve Beta Adrenergic Receptors
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cell by binding its spike protein with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) also known as Basigin or extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), has been proposed as another host cell receptor that might be involved in SARSCoV- 2 cellular entry. Any other host cell receptors that exist for SARS-CoV-2 is not known at present. SARS-CoV-2 shares high similarity with SARS-CoV is well known. For SARS-CoV, it has been already shown that along with the ACE2 receptor in the host cell, surface vimentin by its association with ACE2 acts as a co-receptor for SARS-CoV cellular entry. For SARS-CoV-2 also surface vimentin might act as co-receptor. Drugs targeting vimentin has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19.  It is interesting to note that vimentin is involved in beta adrenergic receptor activation and regulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Beta adrenergic receptor via vimentin may be associated with the ACE2 receptor and involved in SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry. Read more...