Synergistic Effects of Metformin and Cocoa Flavanol on Inflammatory and Oxidant Markers Induced by Carrageenan: Pathophysiological Approach
Background and Aim: The present study aims to evaluate the effects of metformin, cocoa flavanol and their combination as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs. Methods: Forty adult male albino mice are divided into five groups: Control, Carrageenan (Cg), Cg Metformin (Met), Cg Cocoa and Cg Met Cocoa groups. Cg is used to induce the inflammation through injection of it in the paw of the hind leg and into the trunk of mice. Also, Met is applied intraperitoneally at the same time of Cg injection while Cocoa is received orally seven days before carrageenan injection. Biochemical estimation of inflammatory mediators (COX-2, PGE2, TNF-α, CRP) and selected oxidative stress markers (MDA, SOD, GSH) was performed. Results: This study elucidated the marvellous leverage of the metformin, cocoa flavanol and their combination as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs, where metformin and Cocoa decreased all inflammatory mediators (COX-2, PGE2, TNF-α, CRP) with high significant (P<0.01) in comparing with Cg group. In addition, the level of MDA is decreased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of SOD and GSH are increased significantly (P<0.01) in comparing with Cg group. Interestingly, their combination restored normal levels of the inflammatory mediators and the oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: I concluded that Met and cocoa are powerful anti-inflammatory substances and can ameliorate the oxidative stress that results from inflammation. Additionally, the mixture of them can retrieve the normal levels of all measured parameters.