Effect of Acute Administration of Ethanol Extract of Wild Fig (Ficus thonningii) on Spatial Memory and Learning in CD-1 Mice
Background and Aim: Since there is an increasing demand by people for means of enhancing the neuro-cognitive functions of the brain and the side effects of many neuro-cognitive drugs which have left many persons with irreversible neurological damage. This situation has lead to our investigation of the neuro-cognitive properties (learning and memory) of the plant, Ficus thioningii (wild fig). Methods: 30 Adult Swiss mice weighing between 16 -21g, were divided into 3 groups, 10 mice per group. Before the neurobehavioral parameters were assessed, the LD50, acute toxicological screenings of the plant were determined. Group A being the control, received rat feed with normal saline, group B being the low dose were administered with Ficus thoninngii extract at a dose of 10mg/kg and group C being the high dose were administered with Ficus thoninngii extract at a dose of 20mg/kg, this administration lasted for 14 days. All animals were allowed clean drinking water. Results: The data’s were analyzed and the results showed that on days 1, 2 and 3 of acquisition training mice from low dose and high dose learned equally when compared to the control. In the reversal training, memory was improved in the low dose and high dose treated mice when compared to control at (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001). During the probe trial, the swim duration in the South-East quadrant was significantly higher for high dose and low dose compared to control (p<0.01 and at p<0.001). However, during the visible platform task, the swim latencies for the low dose and high dose group were also significantly lower compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that consumption of Ficus thoninngii extracts enhances learning and memory in mice, thus Ficus thoninngii containing diet may be beneficial in the improvement of learning and memory.