Deterioration of lung functions is similar in bidi and cigarette smokers in younger population despite mild, low duration smoking ‑ an observational study
Background and Aim: Smoking in the form of bidi or cigarette is a preventable cause of lung damage. There are limitations of routine spirometry which fails to reveal functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), and total lung capacity (TLC). These are functionally significant parameters affected earlier by cigarette smoking. However, less is known about the effect of bidi smoking which is 10 times more prevalent in India than cigarette. We studied the effect of type of smoking bidi versus cigarette on complete profile of lung volumes and capacities in young male smokers. Methods: We conducted a cross‑sectional observational study using random sampling from community. Fifty‑four apparently healthy, young, asymptomatic current male smokers were recruited from community. We used Ultima PFX real time diffusion system, BreezeSuite software, flow volume calibration, and guidelines laid by American Thoracic Society. We measured spirometric parameters followed by FRC measurement by nitrogen washout technique and derived RV and TLC. We compared the distribution of means by unpaired t‑test and evaluated linear correlation between parameters by Pearson’s correlation test, setting P value significance at 0.05. Results: Male smokers had mean age 30 years, mean duration 7 years, predominance of light smoking. Age, body mass index, duration, and intensity of smoking correlated negatively with most parameters with significance mainly for spirometric parameters. Values did not differ between bidi or cigarette smoker significantly. Majority showed either normal or mixed spirometric pattern with none showing obstructive one. Conclusion: Young, asymptomatic, sedentary male smokers had reduced lung functions ‑ spirometric or nonspirometric, unaffected by type of smoking – bidi or cigarette, despite low duration and predominant light smoking with restrictive or mixed pulmonary dysfunction whose progression can be suggested to be prevented by cessation of smoking.